Monday, February 29, 2016

Conference: Canadian Business History Association First Annual Meeting

The Canadian Business History Association/Association canadienne pour l'histoire des affaires (CBHA/ACHA) has announced that registration is open for its first annual conference, which will be held at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto on May 5-6, 2016. The theme of the meeting is "From Public Interest to Private Profit: The Changing Political and Social Legitimacy of International Business." The program is available here. According to the meeting website,
This conference of historians, business historians, management scholars, and business practitioners will study the corporate entity as it has changed over the past four centuries. Corporations started their lives as social, political, as well as commercial entities. By the nineteenth century, corporations became less accountable to the societies and states and became more self-consciously economic, private, and financial organizations. Since then, many interests have attempted to reintroduce the social purpose of corporations. The conference will offer participants the opportunity to place present day corporate activity into an instructive historical context and to discuss how corporate actors in the past addressed challenges and problems parallel to those facing corporations today. 
Registration is required, but there is no fee. Please consult the conference website for the registration form. Questions may be addressed to Professor Chris Kobrak (; Professor Joe Martin (, or Professor Will Pettigrew (

The meeting is being sponsored by the Leverhulme Trust, with co-sponsorship by the Centre for the Political Economies of International Commerce (PEIC), University of Kent, and the Business History Group, Rotman School of Management.

Friday, February 26, 2016

Joint Virtual Journal Issue on “Slavery and Anti-Slavery in the Atlantic World”

The editors of the American Historical Review and Past and Present have created a "virtual journal issue" on "Slavery and Anti-Slavery in the Atlantic World"; all the included articles will be freely available for downloading for "a short period of time."
    The issue consists entirely of previously published articles, except for a new introduction by the editors (Rob Schneider and Matthew Hilton) "tracing the evolution of the field through the pages of both journals." Among the essays of particular interest are those by Thomas Haskell in the AHR on "Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility"; by Seymour Drescher on Dutch capitalism and antislavery; and, in Past and Present, by Mark Smith on plantation capitalism in the antebellum South.

Wednesday, February 24, 2016

Conference: “The Maintainers”

"The Maintainers: A Conference" will take place at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, on April 7-9, 2016. The program has now been posted. According to the organizers,
All speakers share an interest in the concepts of maintenance, infrastructure, repair, and the myriad forms of labor and expertise that sustain our human-built world. Presentations will cover a wide variety of technologies and practices, including software, spaceflight, trolleys, meteorology, digital archives, and the politics of funding for infrastructure. 
     The conference keynote speaker will be Ruth Schwartz Cowan, professor emerita in the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania.
    Registration is required and can be accomplished on-line at the conference website. Questions may be directed to Lee Vinsel.

Monday, February 22, 2016

Conference: “Harnessing Uncertainty”—An “Enterprise of Culture” Event

The next event in "The Enterprise of Culture" project is a one-day conference, to be held on March 10, 2016, on "Harnessing Uncertainty: Social, Cultural and Economic Capital in Fashion." The meeting will look at "the current state of fashion against the backdrop of an uncertain world." According to the organizers, the conference
will provide a platform for speakers and delegates to question assumptions about the contemporary fashion industry and to scrutinise the place of fashion amidst some of the dominant global issues of today. Speakers from the UK, USA and the Netherlands will discuss topics such as sustainability, Chinese identity and fashion, fashion blogging as labour and leisure, new perspectives on the suit, challenges and opportunities facing fashion designers, the European fashion business since 1945 and conscientious fashion. A round-table will consider conference themes in more depth and will open the floor for debate.
     Open to anyone with an interest in the business history of fashion, this event will bring together academics, fashion industry practitioners, professionals, students, archivists, museum curators and wider public audiences. Booking is essential as places are limited. The conference is free to attend and includes lunch, refreshments, and a drinks reception. To register, please see the conference website.

    The project leader for the Enterprise of Culture project, based at the University of Leeds, is Regina Lee Blaszczyk.

Saturday, February 20, 2016

Over the Counter: Issue No. 23

The February 2016 issue of the American Historical Review features an extensive literature review essay by Kenneth Lipartito on "Reassembling the Economic: New Departures in Historical Materialism." According to the abstract, "This new materialism offers a way for historians to bring markets, finance, capital, technology, corporations, and other economic features of the past back into the historical narrative." Update: This article is now (2/24/16) freely available at this link as a PDF and here as an HTML file.

The Hagley Library and Museum have received from Alan and Ann Rothschild their huge collection of over 4,000 patent models, making the Hagley's collection second only to that of the Smithsonian in the United States.

In other Hagley news, the library has opened an Oral History Project Office, designed to establish an ongoing oral history capacity at Hagley.

The 2016 American Antiquarian Society Summer Seminar on "The History of the Book" will focus on "Subscription Publishing in America." The application deadline is March 15.

The schedule for the 2016 Harvard Graduate Student Conference on International History (Con-IH), to be held on March 10-11 is now available; the theme this year is "International and Economic History: The Global Dimension."

James Livingston has an article in the Chronicle Review on "The Myth of a 'Second Gilded Age' "

And in related news, the Northern University of Illinois library has a large web exhibit on "Illinois During the Gilded Age."

A recent article in The Atlantic features David Moss of HBS, who is using the case method to teach his "History of American Democracy" class. See "A Better Way to Teach History."

Built on the 1626 will and the inventory of Corbett's house and shop, William Corbett's Bookshop provides interesting information about book buying and reading in 17th-century Newcastle. An article describing the project is featured on the Omeka blog.

From the Bancroft Library at the University of California Berkeley: American war posters from the First World War 

The Smithsonian has opened a new physical exhibit on the guano trade, accompanied by a substantial on-line website; see "The Norie Marine Atlas and the Guano Trade."

Drawing on Jeffrey Meikle's new book, Postcard America, the Slate Vault featured a series of Depression-era linen postcards.

The "Global Urban History" blog has a post on "Berlin, 1873: A New Imperial Center and a Transatlantic Financial Crisis," by Catherine Davies. Another post, on "The Spiritual Capital of the Rust Belt: Pittsburgh and the Postindustrial Transformation of North Atlantic Cities," by Tracey Neumann, is also of interest.

A number of recent websites provide digital resources on women in business history:
     The on-line brochure accompanying the New York Public Library's physical exhibit on "Printing Women"
    "Rare Books from the Women's Library" at the London School of Economics
    "Mill Girls in Nineteenth-Century Print" from the American Antiquarian Society

From the University of Warwick digital collections: "LEO: The World's First Business Computer"

Stephen Mihm writes about the history of the corporate income tax on Bloomberg View. 

The Henry Ford "Expert Sets Gallery" offers dozens of created sets curated from among the site's digital materials by experts on the staff.

From The Nation: Paula Findlen on China "Before Europe's Intrusion," a lengthy review essay about two books (by Robert K. Batchelor and Timothy Brook) on the recently digitized Selden Map.

Paul Krugman reviewed Robert J. Gordon's The Rise and Fall of American Growth in a Sunday New York Times Book Review last month.

The program for the Texas Law Review's 2016 Symposium on "The Constitution and Economic Inequality," which took place at the University of Texas at Austin in January, is available on-line.

Friday, February 19, 2016

Program Available: Southern Capitalisms

“Southern Capitalisms” is a graduate student conference to be held on March 4-5, 2016, at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The program for the meeting has now been posted on the conference website. Session topics include "Crossing Borders: The Mechanisms of Capital Expansion"; "Migrant Entrepreneurs"; "Black Bodies, Capital, and Ideas in Motion"; "Artistic Entrepreneurship: Contesting and Creating Narratives";"Envisioning Southern Growth";  "Precarity and Coercion: Southern Labor Regimes"; "Governing Production: The Politics of Land Expropriation, Food, and Labor"; and "Internal Improvements: Institution-Building in the 'South'."

The keynote speaker for the conference will be Julia Ott of the New School. Conference organizers are Paige Glotzer and Jessica Levy, both Ph.D. candidates in the Department of History at Johns Hopkins University.

For additional information, please consult the conference website.

Wednesday, February 17, 2016

CFP: 2016 Annual Congress of the Business History Society of Japan

The 52nd Congress of the Business History Society of Japan will take place at Chuo University in Tokyo on October 8-9, 2016. The theme for the meeting will be "Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Perspectives on Business History." From the call for papers:
     The BHSJ’s first-­ever English sessions were held during the 50th annual meeting in 2014, and generated fruitful, international discussions between Japanese scholars and those from other parts of the world. To further enhance international exchange, the BHSJ decided to organize English sessions every two years starting in 2016. The English sessions will take place concurrently with the regularly scheduled Japanese sessions at the annual meeting.
    The organizers’ aim is to foster cross-­disciplinary knowledge exchange by bringing together scholars who incorporate the themes of innovation and entrepreneurship into their research on business history, economic history, management and economics. The conference will also explore how business history in particular can offer new theoretical and empirical perspectives and approaches to research on innovation and entrepreneurship in other fields.
    The deadline for submissions is March 31, 2016. Notification of acceptance will be made no later than mid-­May.
     For paper proposals, please submit a title, an abstract of no more than 400 words along with a one-­page CV. Session proposals should include a  brief abstract  of the session along, a one-­page abstract for each paper as well as a one-­page CV for each participant. Submissions should be sent to Associate Professor Takashi Hirao (
    In addition to the sessions, the BHSJ will also organize a special English panel on October 8. This panel, organized by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu, will serve as the successor to the Fuji Conference, which has an over 40-­year history. A discussion of the main themes of the conference, innovation and entrepreneurship will be carried out by panel participants:
Hyungoh Lee, Sookmyung Women's University
Tom Nicolas, Harvard Business School
Alessandro Nuvolari, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa
Hiroshi Shimizu, Hitotsubashi University
Please consult the complete call for papers for a fuller description.

Monday, February 15, 2016

Books of Interest: Mid-Winter Edition

Following is a list of books of interest to business and economic historians published or forthcoming from January through March 2016 (and a few we missed in late 2015):

Ross Bassett, The Technological Indian (Harvard University Press, February 2016)

Michael D. Bordo and Mark A. Wynne, eds., The Federal Reserve's Role in the Global Economy: A Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press, March 2016)

Catia Brilli, Genoese Trade and Migration in the Spanish Atlantic, 1700–1830 (Cambridge University Press, March 2016)

Christian Christiansen, Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society (Oxford University Press, January 2016)

Peter Conti-Brown, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve (Princeton University Press, January 2016)

Simon Cordery, The Iron Road in the Prairie State: The Story of Illinois Railroading (Indiana University Press, December 2015)  

James W. Cortada, All the Facts: A History of Information in the United States since 1870 (Oxford University Press, March 2016)

Leonor Freire Costa, Pedro Lains, and Susana Munch Miranda, An Economic History of Portugal, 1143-2010 (Cambridge University Press, March 2016)

Jefferson Cowie, The Great Exception: The New Deal and the Limits of American Politics (Princeton University Press, January 2016)

Béatrice Craig, Women and Business since 1500: Invisible Presences in Europe and North America? (Palgrave Macmillan, December 2015)

Sally Denton, The Profiteers; Bechtel and the Men Who Built the World (Simon and Schuster, March 2016)

Jonathan Eacott, Selling Empire: India in the Making of Britain and America, 1600-1830 (University of North Carolina Press, February 2016)

Richard Follett, Sven Beckert, Peter Coclanis, and Barbara Hahn, Plantation Kingdom: The American South and Its Global Commodities (Johns Hopkins University Press, February 2016)

Tyler Beck Goodspeed, Legislating Instability: Adam Smith, Free Banking, and the Financial Crisis of 1772 (Harvard University Press, March 2016)

Robert J. Gordon, The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War (Princeton University Press, January 2016)

Felicia Gottmann, Global Trade, Smuggling, and the Making of Economic Liberalism: Asian Textiles in France 1680-1760 (Palgrave Macmillan, March 2016)

Stephen G. Gross, Export Empire: German Soft Power in Southeastern Europe, 1890–1945 (Cambridge University Press, January 2016)

Xing Hang, Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620–1720 (Cambridge University Press, January 2016)

Hervé Joly, Les Gillet de Lyon: Fortunes d'une grande dynastie industrielle (1838-2015) (Librairie Droz, December 2015)

Paul Kahan, The Bank War: Andrew Jackson, Nicholas Biddle, and the Fight for American Finance (Westholme Publishing, December 2015)  

Lloyd Keith and John C. Jackson, The Fur Trade Gamble: North West Company on the Pacific Slope, 1800-1820 (Washington State University Press, February 2016)

Jürgen Kocka, Capitalism: A Short History (Princeton University Press, January 2016)

Bart Lambert, Europe's Rich Fabric: The Consumption, Commercialisation, and Production of Luxury Textiles in Italy, the Low Countries and Neighbouring Territories (Fourteenth-Sixteenth Centuries) (Routledge, December 2015)

Edward G. Lengel, First Entrepreneur: How George Washington Built His--and the Nation's--Prosperity (Da Capo Press, January 2016)

Jeffrey L. Meikle, Postcard America: Curt Teich and the Imaging of a Nation, 1931-1950 (University of Texas Press, January 2016)

John O'Brien, Literature Incorporated: The Cultural Unconscious of the Business Corporation, 1650-1850 (University of Chicago Press, December 2015)

Rowena Olegario, Engine of Enterprise: The Credit Card in America (Harvard University Press, February 2016)

Marc-William Palen, The 'Conspiracy' of Free Trade: The Anglo-American Struggle over Empire and Economic Globalisation, 1846–1896 (Cambridge University Press, February 2016)

Robin Pearson and Takau Yoneyama, eds., Corporate Forms and Organizational Choice in International Insurance (Oxford University Press, January 2016)

Henry Petroski, The Road Taken: The History and Future of America's Infrastructure (Bloomsbury Publishing, February 2016)

Susan V. Spellman, Cornering the Market: Independent Grocers and Innovation in American Small Business (Oxford University Press, March 2016)

Mark W. Steinberg, England's Great Transformation: Law, Labor, and the Industrial Revolution (University of Chicago Press, March 2016)

Chloe E. Taft, From Steel to Slots: Casino Capitalism in the Postindustrial City (Harvard University Press, March 2016)

Frank Trentmann, Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, from the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First (Harper Collins, March 2016)

Friday, February 12, 2016

On-Line Resource: Scottish Business History Network

The just-launched Scottish Business History Network "aims to connect all those - both individuals and organisations - with an interest in Scottish business history and business archives. Membership is free and open to anyone with an interest in business archives and business history in Scotland and beyond, with a view to encouraging partnerships and the building of links between allied sectors." The site now contains a number of brief archival case studies, "developed to show how a wide variety of businesses, archives and heritage organisations have used their business archive collections." A number of others are available on the Scottish Council on Archives website.
   For more information, please see the network's website.

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

APEBH Conference Program Available

The 2016 Asia Pacific Economic and Business History (APEBH) Conference will be held at the University of Adelaide in Adelaide, South Australia, at the end of this week, on February 11-13.
The theme of the conference is "Wine, Wheat and Copper? Resource booms and busts: agriculture, mining and the wider economy in historical and comparative perspective."
      The conference program has recently been posted; abstracts and, in some cases, full papers are linked from the program.
      The 2016 Noel Butlin lecture will be given by Kym Anderson of the University of Adelaide, where he is the George Gollin Professor of Economics. His topic will be "Mining’s Impact on Australia’s Agricultural Competitiveness: Past and Prospective." In addition, Jari Eloranta will deliver the keynote speech at the conference dinner, on  the topic, “The Awkward Dance between Economic and Business History: Methods and Topics for Future Collaboration.”

Monday, February 8, 2016

CFP: BAM 2016 Business History Track

A reminder that the British Academy of Management  (BAM) "Management and Business History Track" will run again this year, at the BAM meeting in Newcastle on September 6-8, 2016. Track co-chairs are Kevin Tennent and Sasha Hodgson. Fully developed paper submissions, as well as shorter developmental papers (1-2,000 words) and workshop submissions, are welcome. The submission deadline is February 29, 2016. The track call says, in part:
This track aims to encourage the growing number of management and business historians who work in business schools and social science departments to engage in constructive debate with a wide range of management scholars. The 2016 conference theme, ‘Thriving in Turbulent Times’, is an ideal opportunity to explore the value of historical study for management research. Histories of organizations, industries and institutions give us the opportunity to understand how managers have responded to turbulent times in the past, whether it be through war, economic crisis, scandal or other disruptions to their activities. In this track we specialize in chronologically or longitudinally motivated research. This year we welcome papers either using new and innovative methodologies, or applying archival methodology to a new disciplinary context. We are also interested in context specific papers using more traditional historical methodology but which take innovative approaches to relate their findings to wider social science concerns. In addition, we appreciate papers dealing with the legacy of turbulence in the past in business and management more generally, and how it has influenced the diversity of experience in present day businesses, regions and communities.
For the full track summary, please see the BAM website. Readers can also find meeting information and submission instructions there.

Friday, February 5, 2016

Lemelson Center Announces Molella Distinguished Fellowship

The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation announces the creation of the Arthur Molella Distinguished Fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History (NMAH). The Center seeks to appoint an experienced author or senior scholar from the history of technology, science and technology studies, business history, museum studies, STEAM education, or an allied field. The specific arrangement is flexible: the Molella Distinguished Fellow may use the funds as a sabbatical supplement; for several short-duration visits; for a single residency focused on research and writing; or for a series of lectures leading to a major publication. The Molella Distinguished Fellow will be encouraged to participate in the intellectual life and programmatic activities of the museum; to take advantage of the expertise of the museum’s research staff; and to consult the Institution’s vast invention and technology collections. The Lemelson Center will assist in arranging a visa for non-US citizens, provide a work space, and facilitate startup procedures at the Smithsonian.
    The Lemelson Center invites applications covering a broad spectrum of research topics in the history of technology, invention, and innovation.  However, strong preference in the selection of the Arthur Molella Distinguished Fellow will be given to projects whose topics align with one (or more) of the Lemelson Center’s strategic research and programmatic areas, including: (1) the role of place in invention and innovation; (2) the making and training of inventors and innovators; (3) innovation in sports; (4) the role of risk and failure in invention and innovation; or (5) projects that illuminate inventors from diverse backgrounds or any inventions and technologies associated with groups (e.g. women, minorities, disabled, LGBT, etc.) that are traditionally under-represented in the historical record.
   The Molella Fellowship carries a stipend of $35,000 (US). Funds may be used flexibly to support travel for several short-term visits; living expenses for longer residences up to six months; and related research expenses. Dates are flexible. Fellows may begin their residencies on/after June 1, 2016 through May 31, 2017.
    For application procedures, please visit Applications are due March 31, 2016. For more information, please contact the fellowship coordinator, Eric S. Hintz+1 202-633-3734.

About Arthur P. Molella

The Arthur Molella Distinguished Fellowship is endowed by The Lemelson Foundation in recognition of Dr. Arthur P. Molella’s scholarly contributions in recording and celebrating the history and importance of invention and innovation in American society.  During his 40+ years at the Smithsonian, and as founding director (emeritus) of the Lemelson Center, Molella has been responsible for collecting initiatives, major exhibitions, and numerous publications.

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

BHR Provides Free Access to a Selection of Articles

The editors of the Business History Review, published by Cambridge University Press, are providing open access to a number of recent articles. Included are:
Naomi R. Lamoreaux, Kenneth L. Sokoloff, and Dhanoos Sutthiphisal, "Patent Alchemy: The Market for Technology in US History"
Espen Storli, "Cartel Theory and Cartel Practice: The Case of the International Aluminum Cartels, 1901–1940"
Mary O'Sullivan, "A Fine Failure: Relationship Lending, Moses Taylor, and the Joliet Iron & Steel Company, 1869–1888"
Richard R. John, "Prophet of Perspective: Thomas K. McCraw"
Mira Wilkins, "The History of Multinationals: A 2015 View"
Alain Verbeke and Liena Kano, "The New Internalization Theory and Multinational Enterprises from Emerging Economies: A Business History Perspective"
Pierre-Yves Donzé, "Siemens and the Construction of Hospitals in Latin America, 1949-1964"
B. Zorina Khan, "Inventing Prizes: A Historical Perspective on Innovation Awards and Technology Policy"
Graeme G. Acheson, Gareth Campbell, and John D. Turner, "Active Controllers or Wealthy Rentiers? Large Shareholders in Victorian Public Companies
Brian R. Cheffins, "Corporate Governance since the Managerial Capitalism Era"
Readers may also want to check out the Autumn 2015 issue, which is a special volume on "Globalization," in which the Wilkins, Verbeke and Kano, and Donzé articles appear.

Monday, February 1, 2016

Full 2016 OAH Program Now Available

The Organization of American Historians (OAH) will hold its 2016 annual meeting on April 7-10 in Providence, Rhode Island. The complete program brochure is now available on-line. We highlighted several business and economic history sessions in an earlier post, but the full program includes many other sessions of interest. [Note that the OAH program does not supply session numbers or links to abstracts, so the sessions are identified here by the page number on which they appear in the program.]
Sessions sponsored or co-sponsored by the BHC:
   p. 28: "Financial Leaders of the Early American Republic"
   p. 37: "Capitalism in the Countryside: Farmers, Families, and the Marketplace"
   p. 53: "Temporalities of Agriculture and Capitalism"
   p. 56: "Law, Finance, and Institutional Leadership: New Perspectives on the History of Financialization"
   p. 56: "The Business of Leadership"
   p. 63: "Who Remade the Modern American City? Private-Sector Civic Leadership and Urban Change, 1945–2000" [Note that this session has been moved from Friday to Sunday.]

Other economic history sessions:
   p. 28: "New Politics, New Economy: Redefining Leadership in Postindustrial America"
   p. 32: "New Directions in the Study of Paid Domestic Work: Race, State, and Struggle"
   p. 32: "Rhode Island and the China Trade"
   p. 32: "The Truly Advantaged: The Lending Class in High, Low, and Housing Finance"
   p. 40: "Open Question: What Is the Relation between Slavery and Capitalism?"
   p. 43: "Gender, Consumerism, and the Early South"
   p. 44: "Myths of the Market"
   p. 46: Plenary: "Can We Use History?" (Paul Krugman, with commentary by Naomi Lamoreaux and Eric Rauchway)
   p. 50: "No-Fault: Injury, Compensation, and the Shifting Rhetoric of Responsibility in Twentieth-Century America"
   p. 50: "Hippies, Business, and Technology: Rethinking Countercultural Community and Leadership in the 1960s and ’70s"
   p. 51: "Christianity and Capitalism in the Modern United States: Historians Respond to Kevin Kruse’s One Nation under God"
   p. 51: "History, Numbers, Numeracy: Opportunities and Obstacles in Quantitative and Digital History"
   p. 52: "Governing Bodies of Evidence: Labor, Citizenship, and Sensory Knowledge in the Gilded Age"
   p. 58: "Neoliberalism in the 1970s"

Individual papers in other sessions:
   p. 31: Brett Gadsden, "From Protest to Politics: Clifford Alexander and the Making of the Modern Black Executive"
   p. 33: Rebecca Kobrin, "A Credit to the Nation?: Immigrant Banking, New York State’s Banking Authorities, and the Reshaping of American Finance, 1914–1930"
   p. 38: Ai Hisano, "More “Natural” Than Nature: The Federal Policy and Corporate Enterprise of Food Coloring in the Progressive Era"
   p. 40: Jenna Healey, "Profit and Procreation: Regulating the American Fertility Industry"
   p. 39, Jessica Frazier, "Community Solutions: Women in the Fishing Industry"
   p. 41: Elizabeth De Wolfe, "Spies, Lies, and Type-Writers: Female Office Workers and the 1894 Breckinridge-Pollard Scandal"
   p. 52: Carl Zimring, "Environmental Racism in the Gilded Age: Soap Advertising and the Rhetoric of Clean and White"
   p. 52: Denise Khor, "Photography, Chinese Workers, and the Construction of the Transcontinental Railroad"
   p. 56: Ryan Acton, "The Meritocratic Ethos and the Spirit of Inequality: A Case Study of Harvard Business School"

And of course, many other sessions feature papers in related fields including the history of slavery and of gender and political, urban, and labor history.